Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: butane, energy, gas prices, gasoline, NGLs, RVP, transportation, vapor pressure
Blending butane into gasoline is why gas prices fall in the fall, according to Robert Rapier. RVP = Reid vapor pressure, the higher the RVP the faster the evaporation. EPA sets limits on RVP of gasoline which are more stringent in summer months than in winter, allowing the increased blending of cheap, yet highly evaporative (word?) butane:
Butane has an RVP of 52 psi, which means pure butane is a gas at normal pressures and temperatures. But butane can be blended into gasoline, and its fractional contribution to the blend roughly determines its fractional contribution to the overall vapor pressure of the mixture. As long as the vapor pressure of the total blend does not exceed normal atmospheric pressure (again, ~14.7 psi) then butane can exist as a liquid component in a gasoline blend.
But with a vapor pressure as high as 52 psi, butane can’t make a large contribution to summer blends where the vapor pressure limit is 7.8 psi. For example, if a gasoline blend contained 10 percent butane, butane’s contribution to the vapor pressure limit is already 5.2 psi and you would still have 90 percent of the blend to go. It isn’t feasible to blend much butane into gasoline when the vapor pressure requirement is low. But when the limit increases by 5 or 7 psi, it becomes feasible to blend large quantities of butane.
Why do we care about blending butane anyway? Because it is abundant and cheap. Butane can routinely trade at a $1/gallon discount to crude oil or gasoline. Butane is a byproduct of oil refining, but is also a component of natural gas liquids (NGLs), which are condensed out during natural gas production. Given the huge expansion of natural gas production in the US, it should come as no surprise that NGL production is also on the rise.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bike racing, doping, Lance Armstrong, pro cycling, Sheryl Crow, USADA, wheelmen
According to an excerpt from a new book, Sheryl Crow witnessed Lance Armstrong receive a blood transfusion in 2004 and told federal investigators about in 2011.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: Carolyn Tucker, Colorado, energy, kerogen, oil, oil shale, peak oil, pie in the ground, proven reserves, Royal Dutch Shell
Said spokesman Martin Skrtel, speaking at Shell’s headquarters in Den Hague, “It was always just a really stupid, non-starter of an idea. You’d have to be a scientific illiterate to believe that cooking “oil shale” to create crude oil could have a positive energy balance. Still, we thought we could buy off enough legislators to create, how should we say, a conducive fiscal atmosphere that would make the scheme a profit-maker for us. But now we have abandoned even those plans…”
Ha ha that was satire. What they really said was different:
A month after Royal Dutch Shell’s U.S. subsidiary said it would pursue its oil shale research project in Colorado while selling off other oil and gas assets, the company has reversed its decision.
“There’s been a shift in our oil shale project,” spokeswoman Carolyn Tucker said Tuesday.
“The energy market has evolved since Shell first started its oil shale research project in 1981. We plan to exit our Colorado oil shale research project in order to focus on other opportunities and producing assets in our broad global portfolio,” she said in an email.
“Our current focus is to work with staff and contractors as we safely and methodically stop research activities at the site,” she said.
The announcement regarding the closure of Shell’s oil shale research and development work comes as the company announces plans to put its assets on the market across the United States, including oil and gas assets in northwestern and southeastern Colorado.
Shell on Aug. 1 reported a 60 percent drop in second-quarter results — largely due to a $2 billion write-down of its North American shale assets due to “the latest insights from exploration and appraisal drilling results and production information.”
via Brian Holcombe, velonews:
Stetina suffered a traumatic brain stem injury in the crash, which reportedly came after a driver pulled across the oncoming traffic lane ahead of a group of cyclists in Lefthand Canyon. He remained in critical condition at the Boulder Community Hospital after being airlifted from the crash site, and has taken significant steps in regards to his cognitive function since reconstructive oral surgery late last week, according to friends and family.
“I told him about how the races [WorldTour events in Quebec] went and he tried his best to give me training advice,” Peter Stetina wrote in an email shared with VeloNews. “It was hard to follow, but it shows his mind is trying to process complex theories. He was making regular eye contact and even told me I need to get five percent more power. I told him about switching to BMC next season, he didn’t remember this had happened but he understood what I was telling him and processed that as well. I also asked him if he remembers Loba (my dog) and he said yes.”
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: Anadarko, Colorado floods, John Christiansen, Weld County
DENVER (AP) — More spills were revealed Friday in a Colorado oilfield swamped by floodwaters as cleanup efforts remained stalled due to high waters and regulators cautioned that more oil releases were likely to be found in coming days.
The latest spills included 2,400 gallons of oil from a toppled storage tank, almost 900 gallons from an unspecified source and two others from damaged storage tanks that involved unknown volumes.
Most of the oil releases reported to date came from storage tanks or tank farms operated by Texas-based Anadarko Petroleum Co. At least four of the releases reported by the company were in Weld County and spilled oil into the South Platte River or a tributary, according to information submitted to regulators.
It’s possible other companies have suffered similar problems since flooding began last week but have not yet been able to assess their damage. An aerial survey of the flood area on Thursday revealed up to two dozen overturned oil storage tanks, state regulators said. Releases from those tanks could not be immediately confirmed.
With many roads in the area washed out, the sites remained largely inaccessible, preventing cleanup work from getting underway until water levels drop, said Anadarko spokesman John Christiansen.
“State regulators…” Come on. We all know that, for all intents and purposes, there are no state regulators of Colorado’s oil and gas industry. We rely on the industry to regulate itself here.
Remember that Weld County, offended by some legislators’ attempts to strengthen the virtually non-existent regulatory regime, wanted to secede and become their own state, to which I say “Go for it, Weld County.”
Was mysteriously ordered to leave the scene of the DC Navy Yard shooting… leaving shooter to go about his business.
The Capitol Police tactical response team was told by a supervisor to leave the scene instead of aiding municipal officers, sources told the BBC.
Meanwhile, the department has installed a new leader of the elite unit. No reason has been given for the decision.
Anything in US media?
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bicycling, East Bay, EBBC, Oakland, sharrows, urban cycling
Not exactly what I had in mind when I coined the term some years ago, but pretty cool. These look essentially like a green stripe bike lane painted right down the middle of the travel lane. via East BAy Bicycle Coalition:
EBBC compromised with the city of Oakland to allow supersharrows on 40th St. in return for real bike lanes on West MacArthur Boulevard, which are being studied. The compromise was made necessary by neighborhood concerns about narrowing newly planted medians to make room for bike lanes and AC Transit concerns about bus service impacts if a traffic lane was removed for bikes. EBBC prefers bike lanes over supersharrows for any street with significant traffic or higher speeds, but we first want to hear what you think. Thanks for providing feedback.