Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bicycle, bicycle history, bike, cycling, history, infrastructure, Los Angeles, Pasadena, transportation history
The crowd cheered. Bugles rang out. Within a year, Dobbins promised, something similar to Columbus’s short route to the Orient would rise above the hills of the Los Angeles basin. His “Cycleway” was designed to swiftly and conveniently transport people between a pair of key urban centers: the old colonial plaza in Downtown Los Angeles, and Pasadena, the burgeoning, modern suburb to the north that then rivaled the older city in size and ambition. The Dobbins route—which neatly anticipated and presaged the automotive freeways that now stretch across the region—would be a modern marvel. It would boast a state-of-the-art toll-collecting system. It would be elevated fifteen feet above the ground; the limited access would ensure that traffic flowed smoothly. “It can be said,” wrote the Los Angeles Times of the ground breaking, “that none of the new Southern California enterprises will …be more certain of financial success. The wheel must have a path of its own between these two cities.”
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bicycling, cycling, Heathrow, indignant cyclists
Things you need to know if you hire a car in the UK according to Heathrow Airport web page.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bicycle accidents, bicycling, bike safety, biking, collisions, crash data, cycling, injuries, transportation
The following list of papers and links to papers or abstracts is from the Industrialized Cyclist Bicycling Research Page. Go to http//:www.industrializedcyclist.com/lies.html to click the links. The Research Page also has similar lists for international accident statistics, patterns of use, docs related to facilities and planning, cycling-related laws, helmets and more.
EVERY BICYCLIST COUNTS 2014 report from the League of American Bicyclists found 40% of cyclist fatalities the result of a hit-from-behind.
KAPLAN’S SURVEY OF L.A.W. MEMBERS Viet-Nam War-era cycling survey, 1974. Note: this is on the website of John Allen. Or download pdf.
ADULT BICYCLISTS IN THE UNITED STATES – CHARACTERISTICS AND RIDING EXPERIENCE IN 1996 (pdf) William Moritz’ survey of LAB members. An update of Kaplan with similar numbers. Are they good or bad? Depends on your perspective.
MORITZ’ INTERNET SURVEY OF BICYCLE COMMUTERS Another relatively robust survey from William Moritz, and very similar results.
THE CROSS STUDY This study of 384 accidents that occurred in Santa Barbara in the early 1970s has been cited in support of all kinds of claims. Should it be? Note: only on the website of John Forester.
CROSS-FISHER ’77 (pdf) Volume One of the landmark study prepared for the US Department of Transportation by Kenneth Cross and Gary Fisher. “A Study of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches,” vol. 1, September 1977.
BICYCLE ACCIDENTS AND USAGE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS This 1976 survey showed relatively alarming accident numbers for young riders. Note: on the website of John Forester.
CRASH TYPE MANUAL FOR CYCLISTS From the Federal Highway Administration, by Carol Tan, 1996.
NORTH CAROLINA BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN CRASH DATA TOOL. A database of all reported collisions in N.C. for ten years, includes age of victim, crash type, etc.
FHWA’S BIKE-PED PUBLICATION PAGE Facilities, education and more.
KEN KIFER’S 2001 BICYCLE SAFETY SURVEY A small survey of touring cyclists that seems to corroborate larger surveys of experienced riders, but finds strikingly bad news in the relative danger of cycling versus driving.
FLORIDA BICYCLIST AND PEDESTRIAN CRASH EXPOSURE (pdf) Based on 2002 phone survey.
IDAHO TRAFFIC CRASHES 2012 (pdf) Includes rudimentary information about bicycle crashes in the “Idaho Stop” state.
ON-ROAD BICYCLE FACILITIES AND BICYCLE CRASHES IN IOWA, 2007-2010 Abstract, July 2013, Accident Analysis and Prevention.
BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN WASHINGTON STATE, 1988-1993 (pdf) A survey of police records by Ralph Wessels.
CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE SAFETY STUDY OF BICYCLES AND PEDESTRIANS ON FREEWAYS, EXPRESSWAYS, TOLL BRIDGES, AND TUNNELS 2001 report by Ferrara, San Jose State University.
MANNER AND FAULT IN BICYCLIST FATALITIES : ARIZONA 2009 (pdf) Small sample size.
BICYCLIST FATALITIES AND SERIOUS INJURIES IN NEW YORK CITY 1996-2005 (pdf) Collaboration of local government agencies.
“ONLY GOOD CYCLIST” (pdf) Study of NYC police reports by Right of Way group concludes motorists are more often at fault in car-bike collisions. See also “KILLED BY AUTOMOBILE,” (pdf) 1999 report from Right of Way organization on pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities in NYC 1994-1997.
“ON ‘DOORINGS’ OF BICYCLISTS …” Article by Al Baker on New York Times’ City Room blog, October 28, 2010, includes some figures on numbers of doorings in New York state, and information on applicable laws.
BOSTON EMS BIKE CRASH DATA MAP Shows EMS responses to bike accidents in city of Boston, one year, October 31, 2009 to October 31, 2010.
OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AMONG BOSTON MESSENGERS Harvard researcher J. Dennerlein presents a non-robust 2002 survey that focuses on the danger of messenger work, but with data that (inadvertently, and unknown to prof. Dennerlein) confirms veteran messengers carry accident rates better than those found in the major surveys of club cyclists.
BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS IN METROPOLITAN BOSTON 1979-80 On John Allen’s site. This old study by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council is based on a sampling of reported collisions, and confirms a profound correlation of age with accident type.
CITY OF BOISE CYCLING SAFETY TASK FORCE FINAL REPORT (pdf) 2009 report contains crash statistics for previous five years, recommends continuing ‘Idaho Stop’ law.
SAFE STREETS BOULDER 2012 (pdf) A study of motor vehicle accidents involving bicycles and pedestrians, study period 2008-2011. From the City of Boulder. See Robert Hurst’s thoughts on this study here: BOULDER STREETS SAFE?
BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN FORT COLLINS, COLORADO 2000-2009 (pdf) Survey of reported accidents appears to show accident and injury rates on the rise.
CITY OF MADISON, WISCONSIN 2010 CRASH REPORT (pdf).
MESA ARIZONA BIKE-CAR WRECK STUDY (pdf) Study of police reports from all reported accidents in Mesa, Arizona in 2005.
THE OHSU PORTLAND, OREGON BICYCLIST INJURY SURVEY (pdf) Published in Trauma, November, 2010. Introduces a rather expansive definition of “traumatic event.”
SEATTLE INTERACTIVE BICYCLE ACCIDENT MAP 2011 From the Seattle Times.
SAN FRANCISCO BIKE ACCIDENT DATABASE 2010 The Bay Citizen.
FATALITY ANALYSIS REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS) Seductive numbers of dubious utility. People want to draw conclusions from the annual fatality numbers, but the conclusions don’t necessarily follow. See also: FARS PEDALCYCLIST PAGE. See also this article by Robert Hurst commenting on the different fatality numbers provided by the FARS and WISQARS databases.
ROAD FATALITIES USA Map of US road deaths for all users, from FARS database, 2001-2009. Zoom-in-outable.
BICYCLIST DEATHS AND FATALITY RISK PATTERNS Abstract, Gregory Rodgers, Accident Analysis and Prevention, April 1995.
INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY’S BICYCLE FATALITY ANALYSIS PAGE Meta-analysis of FARS data.
THE NEISS HOME PAGE CPSC’S National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), the best injury data available. See also THE NEISS CODING MANUAL (pdf).
WISQARS (WEB-BASED INJURY STATISTICS QUERY AND REPORTING SYSTEM) Uses NEISS data. See also this article by Robert Hurst commenting on the different fatality numbers provided by the FARS and WISQARS databases.
CYCLISTS INJURED WHILE SHARING THE ROAD WITH MOTOR VEHICLES Abstract of 2007 article by Haileyesus, et al in Injury Prevention. Analysis of NEISS data shows car-bike crashes are involved in only about 15% of all cyclist ER visits.
RISK FACTORS FOR BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT INTERSECTIONS By Alan Wachtel and Diana Lewiston. A look at reported collisions from the late 1980s in Palo Alto, California, crossed with exposure data provided by the city. On Bicyclinglife.
INJURY SEVERITY IN BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES Abstract of 2006 article using police-reported data from North Carolina.
BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES 2001 article by Thompson and Rivara in American Family Physician.
PEDIATRIC HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Abstract of 2007 article from Injury Prevention.
THE OHIO BICYCLE INJURY STUDY Abstract of 1995 paper examining 52 hospital admissions of child cyclists in Ohio.
CPSC’S BICYCLE USE AND HAZARD PATTERNS IN THE UNITED STATES (pdf) One of the most … questionable documents on the list. See also Dr. Gregory Rodgers’ informative DEFENSE OF THE CPSC STUDY against John Allen.
2010 NHTSA BICYCLISTS AND OTHER CYCLISTS FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2008 NHTSA BICYCLISTS AND OTHER CYCLISTS FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2007 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (UPDATED) (pdf) / 2007 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2004 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2001 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 1998 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 1993 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) Beware of ‘Fact Sheets,’ especially when they contradict other ‘Fact Sheets’ produced by the same agency.
2005 MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASH FATALITY COUNTS AND INJURY ESTIMATES (pdf) NHTSA estimates show marked increase in injuries to non-occupants in 2005.
INCIDENCE OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLIST CRASHES BY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (pdf) 2009 NCSA report.
INJURY TO PEDESTRIANS AND BICYCLISTS (pdf) FHWA analysis based on data from a handful of emergency rooms. Data collected ’95-’96.
NHTSA PEDESTRIAN CRASH REPORT (pdf) Updated through 2006, report released 2008. See also PEDESTRIAN ROADWAY FATALITIES (pdf) 2003 NHTSA report. Neither report mentions bike-ped collisions.
SAFETY IN NUMBERS: MORE WALKERS AND BICYCLISTS, SAFER WALKING AND BICYCLING Abstract of 2003 paper by Jacobsen. This paper merits a special chapter in THE CYCLIST’S MANIFESTO.
THE CONTINUING DEBATE ABOUT SAFETY IN NUMBERS (pdf) 2006 paper from the UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center examines the theory with respect to pedestrian data from Oakland, finds a relationship.
THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE ON BICYCLING INJURIES AND CRASHES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2009 meta-analysis of 23 papers, in Environmental Health. See also FACILITIES AND PLANNING below.
USE OF ALCOHOL AS A RISK FACTOR FOR BICYCLING INJURY 2001 article on the JAMA site.
ALCOHOL, BICYCLING AND HEAD AND BRAIN INJURY: A STUDY OF IMPAIRED CYCLISTS’ RIDING PATTERNS (Abstract) Analysis of 200 patients processed through a regional trauma center in Austin, Texas.
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION Free abstracts and tables of contents for this important journal.
A GUIDE FOR REDUCING COLLISIONS INVOLVING BICYCLES 2008 report by Transportation Research Board from analysis of several data sets. View pdf via TRB website.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: Bartali, cycling, cyclists, Giro d'Italia, heroism, Hitler, just a cyclist, Rabbi Nathan Cassuto, Sara Corcos, Shoshan Evron, Twitter
He didn’t go on Twitter about it.
After the war Bartali never spoke of his underground work during the German occupation. Hence many of his courageous endeavors remain unknown. Sara Corcos, who worked for the CDEC Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea in Milan, told her niece, Shoshan Evron, the daughter of Rabbi Nathan Cassuto, that she had met Gino Bartali after the war. He emphatically refused to be interviewed, and said that he had been motivated by his conscience and therefore did not want to have his activity documented. Only when Corcos told him that she was related to the family of Rabbi Cassuto, a deeply moved Bartali agreed to speak, on condition that she would not record him. In the conversation that followed, Bartali told Corcos about the forged documents and about his role in distributing them.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: cheaters, cheating, cycling, doping, genetic manipulation, hypoxia
Numerous physical, pharmacological and/or genetic strategies exist that simulate the effects of hypoxia at the molecular and cellular level and increase expression of hypoxia-induced genes such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), its downstream targets such as erythropoietin (EPO) and consequently increase red blood cell production. While hypoxia was classically achieved by exposure to high altitude (hypobaric hypoxic exposure), there are currently numerous methodologies for achieving hypoxia-induced gene doping including chambers (normobaric hypoxia), chemicals and genetic manipulation. Our basic hypothesis is that exposure to different types of hypoxia lead to both a unique ‘molecular signature’ specific to the type of hypoxia as well as core ‘molecular signature’ irrespective of the type of hypoxia. Testing the ‘molecular signatures of hypoxia’ using blood samples from athletes will detect all the different forms (of physical, small molecule and gene-based) hypoxia-induced gene doping that are currently in use (or likely to be developed in the near future) with great sensitivity and specificity.
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: accident rates, casualties, casualty rates, cycling, drivers, London, pedestrians, road users, transportation, Twitter, UK, urban cycling
— Jim (@geographyjim) March 20, 2014
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: bicycle helmet laws, bicycle helmets, bicycling, Chris Boardman, cycling, helmet, London, mandatory helmet laws, UK, urban cycling
British Cycling policy advisor Chris Boardman says it’s time for the cycling community to put the debate about mandatory cycle helmets to bed and get across the message that helmet use is one of the least important cycling safety measures.
Even talking about making helmets mandatory “massively puts people off” cycling, Boardman said, and likened the culture of helmet use among keen cyclists to people wearing body armour because they have got used to being shot at.
Talking to road.cc at the London Bike Show, Boardman said, “I think the helmet issue is a massive red herring. It’s not even in the top 10 of things you need to do to keep cycling safe or more widely, save the most lives.”
More Boardman goodness:
We could use some straight talk like this in the US.